Design of a Complex Structure Using a Turtle

The topology and sizing of structures, such as antennas, can be automatically synthesized by means of developmental genetic programming. For example, a two-dimensional wire antenna can be constructed by a turtle that starts at a particular point facing in a certain direction, and drops metal while moving a certain distance, then turns to a new direction, moves a certain distance without dropping metal, then turns again, and moves in the new direction while dropping metal, and again turns and moves while dropping metal, yielding this final small antenna. Click here to see the turtle create this small illustrative antenna structure.

Three-dimensional antennas can be created by employing a flying turtle.

Other types of complex structures can be similarly created using Lindenmayer systems, the LOGO programming language, and other grammatical and developmental techniques.

· The home page of Genetic Programming Inc. at

· For information about the field of genetic programming in general, visit

· The home page of John R. Koza at Genetic Programming Inc. (including online versions of most papers) and the home page of John R. Koza at Stanford University

· Information about the 1992 book Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, the 1994 book Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, the 1999 book Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, and the 2003 book Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Click here to read chapter 1 of Genetic Programming IV book in PDF format.

· For information on 3,198 papers (many on-line) on genetic programming (as of June 27, 2003) by over 900 authors, see William Langdon’s bibliography on genetic programming.

· For information on the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines journal published by Kluwer Academic Publishers

· For information on the Genetic Programming book series from Kluwer Academic Publishers, see the Call For Book Proposals

· For information about the annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO) conference (which includes the annual GP conference) to be held on June 26–30, 2004 (Saturday – Wednesday) in Seattle and its sponsoring organization, the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (ISGEC). For information about the annual NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware Conference (EH) to be held on June 24-26 (Thursday-Saturday), 2004 in Seattle. For information about the annual Euro-Genetic-Programming Conference to be held on April 5-7, 2004 (Monday – Wednesday) at the University of Coimbra in Coimbra Portugal.

Last updated on August 27, 2003