Synthesis of 60 and 96 Decibel Amplifiers
(A Human-Competitive Result Produced by Genetic Programming)
Genetic programming evolved 60 dB and 96 dB amplifier circuits (and other amplifiers) as described in Section 45.3 of Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane 1999). Chapter 46 demonstrates the evolution of a 40 dB amplifier with a high power supply rejection ratio and Chapters 42 and 43 demonstrate the evolution of a 10 dB and a 39 dB amplifier, respectively.
The task of designing an amplifier is known to be nontrivial. Hundreds of patents for amplifiers have been issued over the years. Harold S. Black (who invented the negative feedback amplifier in 1927) received numerous patents for amplifiers. In particular, Black received two early and fundamental patents on amplifiers in 1935 and 1937 (Black 1935, 1937).
Referring to the eight criteria in chapter 1 of Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane 1999) for establishing that an automatically created result is competitive with a human-produced result, the automatic synthesis of the Zobel filter circuit satisfies the following two criteria:
(A) The result was patented as an invention in the past, is an improvement over a patented invention, or would qualify today as a patentable new invention.
(F) The result is equal to or better than a result that was considered an achievement in its field at the time it was first discovered.
Black, Harold S. 1935. Wave Translation System. U.S. Patent 2,003,282. Filed August 8, 1928. Issued June 4, 1935.
Black, Harold S. 1937. Wave Translation System. U.S. Patent 2,102,670. Filed August 8, 1928. Issued December 21, 1937.
Black, Harold S. 1977. Inventing the negative feedback amplifier. IEEE Spectrum. December 1977. pp.55-60.
Koza, John R., Bennett III, Forrest H, Andre, David, and Keane, Martin A. 1999a. Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
· The home page of Genetic Programming Inc. at www.genetic-programming.com.
· For information about the field of genetic programming and the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, visit www.genetic-programming.org
· For information about John Koza’s course on genetic algorithms and genetic programming at Stanford University
· Information about the 1992 book Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, the 1994 book Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, the 1999 book Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, and the 2003 book Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence. Click here to read chapter 1 of Genetic Programming IV book in PDF format.
· 3,440 published papers on genetic programming (as of November 28, 2003) in a searchable bibliography (with many on-line versions of papers) by over 880 authors maintained by William Langdon’s and Steven M. Gustafson.
· For information on the Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines journal published by Kluwer Academic Publishers
· For information on the Genetic Programming book series from Kluwer Academic Publishers, see the Call For Book Proposals
· For information about the annual Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO) conference (which includes the annual GP conference) to be held on June 26–30, 2004 (Saturday – Wednesday) in Seattle and its sponsoring organization, the International Society for Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (ISGEC). For information about the annual Euro-Genetic-Programming Conference to be held on April 5-7, 2004 (Monday – Wednesday) at the University of Coimbra in Coimbra Portugal. For information about the 2003 and 2004 Genetic Programming Theory and Practice (GPTP) workshops held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. For information about Asia-Pacific Workshop on Genetic Programming (ASPGP03) held in Canberra, Australia on December 8, 2003. For information about the annual NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware Conference (EH) to be held on June 24-26 (Thursday-Saturday), 2004 in Seattle.
Last updated on December 28, 2003